The Great Pyramid at the
Giza Plateau, Egypt, is mysterious, mystical and
strategically placed
on the face of the Earth. It
is aligned with the four cardinal points more accurately
than any other structure, even the Greenwich
observatory. The builders displayed
enlightened understanding of
engineering, mathematics, physics and astronomy. They also had a
profound knowledge of the Earth's dimensions. Many
scientist and scholars now think it was built earlier
than the reign of Cheops (Khufu) at 2600 B.C. They
disagree with the traditional view of Egyptologist and
attribute it to an advanced civilization before the rule
of the Pharaohs. I am convinced they are right. For
more details follow the
"Egypt/Center
of Earth"
link.
The Pyramid lies in the
center of gravity of the continents. It also lies in the
exact center of all the land area of the world, dividing
the earth's land mass into approximately equal quarters.
It lies in the middle of Egypt and in the middle of
Lower and Upper Egypt.
The Plate XX from an
original 1877 copy of
Piazzi Smyth's "Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid". Charles Piazzi Smyth (18191900) was Astronomer Royal
for Scotland and a respected Scientist.
The northsouth axis (31 degrees east of
Greenwich) is the longest land meridian, and the
eastwest axis (30 degrees north) is the longest land
parallel on the globe. There is obviously only one place
that these longest landlines of the terrestrial earth
can cross, and it is at the Great Pyramid! This is
incredible, one of the scores of features of this mighty
structure which begs for a better explanation.
Pyramid Statistics
© 2000 by Larry Orcutt,A total of over 2,300,000 blocks of limestone and
granite were used in its construction with the average
block weighing 2.5 tons and none weighing less than 2
tons. The large blocks used in the ceiling of the King's
Chamber weigh as much as 9 tons.
Original entrance of the
Great Pyramid. Massive blocks of limestone form a relieving arch over
the entrance.
 The base of the pyramid covers 13 acres, 568,500
square feet and the length of each side was
originally 754 feet, but is now 745 feet.
 The original height was 481 feet tall, but is
now only 449 feet.
The majority of the outer casing, which was polished
limestone, was removed about 600 years ago to help build
cities and mosques which created a rough, worn, and
steplike appearance. The base measurements of the Great Pyramid
are: north  755.43 ft; south 
756.08 ft; east  755.88 ft; west  755.77 ft. These
dimensions show no two
sides are identical; however, the distance between the
longest and shortest side is only 7.8 inches. Each side
is oriented almost exactly with the four Cardinal
points. The following being the estimated errors: north
side 2'28" south of west; south side 1'57" south of
west; east side 5'30" west of north; and west side 2'30"
west of north. The four corners were almost perfect
right angles: northeast 90degrees 3' 2"; northwest 89
degrees 59'58"; southeast 89 deg 56'27"; and southwest
90 deg 0'33". When completed, it rose to a height of
481.4 ft., the top 31 feet of which
are now missing. It's four sides incline at an angle of
about 51deg. 51 min. with the ground. At its base, it
covers an area of about 13.1 acres. It was built in 201
stepped tiers, which are visible because the casing
stones have been removed. It rises to the height of a
modern 40story building.
THE BEDROCK AND CORE
The pyramid is built partly upon a solid,
large, bedrock core and a platform
of limestone blocks which can be seen at the northern
and eastern sides. The
builder of this pyramid was very wise to choose this
site because most of
the stones, with the exception of the casing stones,
some granite and basalt
stones, could be cut right on the spot and in the nearby
quarry. This
practical choice made it possible to reduce considerably
the time and
backbreaking labor needed to drag the stones from
distant quarries across the Nile.
The many surveys done on the pyramid proved
that the Egyptians located the
sides of the pyramid along the four Cardinal Points with
extreme accuracy.
Whether they used the stars, and/or the rising and
setting sun, cannot be
determined. One this is certain, that whatever method
they used was direct
and very simple.
Once the sand, gravel and loose rocks had
been removed, down to the solid
bedrock of the plateau, the whole pyramid site was
opencast quarried into
blocks, leaving a square core for the center of the
pyramid (the core is
approximately 412.7 ft square, and rises approx. 46.25
feet high). These
blocks were then stored outside a low wall; made of
mortared stone that surrounds the core (the outside dimensions of the wall
are approx. 887.3
feet square). Today there still remains the foundation
of this wall on the
north, south and west sides of the pyramid, at an
average distance of 65
feet from the outer edge of the base casing stone.
This core gives the pyramid stability from
the downward and horizontal
forces that will develop from the superimposed loads of
blocks of stones
that are piled up, as the pyramid rises. Also, from the
prevailing
northwest winds that exert enormous pressures on the
huge areas of the
pyramid's faces, thus increasing these forces further.
Leveling of the entire pyramid site was
accomplished by flooding the area
inside the wall with water, leaving just the high spots.
These them were cut
down to the level of the surface of the water. Next, some of the water was
released and the high spots again were cut down to the
water's surface. This
process was repeated until the entire pyramid site,
between the core and the
four walls, was leveled down to the base of the
pyramid's platform.
THE CASING STONES
A few of the fine limestone casing blocks
remain at the base of the northern
side and show how accurately the stones were dressed and
fitted together.
The core masonry, behind the casing stones, consists of
large blocks of local limestone, quarried right on the spot, built
around and over the
bedrock core. The size of this core cannot be
determined, since it is
completely covered by the pyramid.
The casing stones were of highly polished
white limestone, which must have
been a dazzling sight. Unlike marble, which tends to
become eroded with time
and weather, limestone becomes harder and more polished.
THE SIZE OF THE BLOCKS
The size of the blocks are based on a
chance discovery in 1837 by Howard
Vyse. He found two of the original side casing blocks at
the base of the
pyramid, 5 ft x 8 ft x 12 ft, with an angle of 51
degrees, 51 minutes cut on
one of the 12 ft. sides. Each of these stones weighed (5
x 8 x 12)/2000 =
39.9 tons before the face angle was cut. These
originally were used for the
side casing stones of Step No. 1, in the Pascal computer
program. The sizes
of all the other blocks were scaled from these two
original blocks of the
remaining Steps 2 to 201.
THE GREAT PYRAMID'S DIMENSIONS AND THEIR LAYOUT
One acre = 43,560 sq. ft, or 208.71 feet on
a side.
For the pyramid's base, length = width = (square root of
13.097144 acres) x
208.71 feet = 755.321 feet. Or 755.321 x 12 = 9063.85
inches.
Height = (755.321 x tangent 51deg 51 min)/2
= 480.783 feet. Or 480.783 x 12
= 5769.403 inches.
For the cap stone base: length = width =
(32.18 x 2)/tangent 51deg 51 min =
50.55 inches.
The average size of a pyramid stone = (5 x
8 x 12)
The average side measurement, at the base = 759.3 ft.
The height used was 201 steps high, or 480 feet. (This
is minus the height
of the Capstone, which was one piece in itself. Geometry
of the Great Pyramid
DIMENSIONS of Great Pyramid
The following article is
Copyright © 20012003 aiwaz.net_institute.
If the calculations concerning the royal
cubit are correct the main dimensions of the
pyramid should also prove that. The approximate
dimensions of the pyramid are calculated by
Petrie according to the remains of the sockets
in the ground for the casing stones whose
remains are still at the top of the pyramid, and
the angle 51° 52' ± 2' of the slopes. The base
of 9069 inches is approximately
440 royal cubits
(the difference is 9 inches which is not a
remarkable difference if we consider the whole
dimension and consider that the employed data
represent only an estimation of the real values)
whereas the calculated height, 5776 inches, is
precisely 280 royal
cubits. The relation 440:280 can be
reduced to 11:7, which gives an approximation of
the half value of Pi.
Squaring the
Circle
The circle and the
square are
united through the circumference:
440x4=1760=2x22/7x280
area of square:
440x440=193600
area of circle:28x28x22/7=246400
sum: 440000

The engagement of Pi value in the main
dimensions suggests also a very accurate angle
of 51° 52' ± 2' of the slopes which expresses
the value of Pi. Another coincidence is the
relation between the height of the pyramid's
triangle in relation to a half of the side of
the pyramid, since it appears to be the Golden
Section, or the specific ratio ruling this set
of proportions, F =
(sqr(5)+1)/2 = 1.618 = 356:220. This ratio,
356:220 = 89:55 is also contained in the first
of Fibonacci Series:
1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144
...
A single composition contains two apparently
contradicting irrational numbers
P and
F, without disrupting
each other. This appears to be completely
opposed to the classical architectural canon
which postulates that in 'good' composition no
two different geometrical systems of proportions
may be mixed in order to maintain the purity of
design. But analysis of other architectural and
artistic forms suggested that the greatest
masters skillfully juggled the proportional
canons without losing the coherent system, for
they knew that these systems can be
interconnected if the path that links them is
found. That is obvious In the case of the Great
Pyramid where two different principles are
interweaved without interference ruling
different angles of the composition, which is
most importantly a most simple one, namely 11:7,
a most simple ratio obviously signifying such
infinite mysteries as the value of
P and most 'natural'
value of F. In spite
of common missunderstanding of architectural
composition, the most mysterious and praised
compositions are very simple but not devoid of
anthropomorphic appeal, since everything is made
out of human proportions, just like Vitruvius
describing the rations of the human body, very
simple and very clean. The numbers 7 and in 11
are successive factors in the second of
Fibonacci progressions that approximate geometry
of the pentagram:
1 3 4
7
11 18 29
47 76 123
...
The summary of the selected main mean
dimensions is:
dimension

b. inch

m

royal cub.

palm

digit

base

9068.8

230.35

440

3,080

12,320

height

5776

146.71

280

1,960

7,840

sum



720


20,160

slope

7343.2

186.52

356

2,492

9,968

edge

8630.4

219.21

418

2,926

11,704

The main source of all kinds of delusions and
speculations about our mythical past for the
western man comes of course from Plato. With the
myth of Atlantis he planted the necessary seed
of mythical Eden, a culture of high intelligence
that lived before the known history. If Plato
received any wisdom from the ancient Egypt it
could perhaps be traced in the canon of numbers
that is so latently present throughout his work,
but never on the surface. This canon seems to
appear in the descriptions of his fantastic
cities where everything is most carefully
calculated and proportioned. The topic of
Plato's Laws is the description of the ideal
state called Magnesia which is entirely composed
out of the mysterious number
5,040.
The distance* when
Earth is closest to Sun (perihelion) is 147x10^{6}
km, which is translated into royal cubits 280x10^{9},
hinting at the height of the Great pyramid,
280 royal cubits 
The Golden Ratio & Squaring the Circle in the Great
Pyramid
A straight line is said to have been cut in
extreme and mean ratio when, as the whole line is to the
greater segment, so is the greater to the less.
[Euclid]
The extreme and mean ratio is also known as the
golden ratio.
If the smaller part = 1, and larger part = G, the golden
ratio requires that
G is equal approximately 1.6180
Does the Great Pyramid contain the Golden Ratio?
Assuming that the height of the GP = 146.515 m, and
base = 230.363 m, and using simple math we find that
half of the base is 115.182 m and the "slant height"
is 186.369 m
Dividing the "slant height" (186.369m) by "half base"
(115.182m) gives = 1.6180,
which is practically equal to the golden ration!
The earth/moon relationship is the only one in our
solar system that contains this unique golden section
ratio that "squares the circle". Along with this is the
phenomenon that the moon and the sun appear to be the
same size, most clearly noticed during an eclipse. This
too is true only from earth's vantage point…No other
planet/moon relationship in our solar system can make
this claim.
If the base of the Great Pyramid is equated with the
diameter of the earth, then the radius of the moon can
be generated by subtracting the radius of the earth from
the height of the pyramid (see the picture below).
Also the square (in orange), with the side equal to
the radius of the Earth, and the circle (in blue), with
radius equal to the radius of the Earth plus the radius
of the moon, are very nearly equal in perimeters:
Orange Square Perimeter = 2+2+2+2=8
Blue Circle Circumference = 2*pi*1.273=8
Note:
Earth, Radius, Mean = 6,370,973.27862 m *
Moon, Radius, Mean = 1,738,000 m.*
Moon Radius divided by Earth Radius = 0.2728 *
* Source:
Astronomic and Cosmographic Data
Let's rephrase the above arguments **
In the diagram above, the big triangle is the same
proportion and angle of the Great Pyramid, with its base
angles at 51 degrees 51 minutes. If you bisect this
triangle and assign a value of 1 to each base, then the
hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) equals
phi (1.618..) and the perpendicular side equals the
square root of phi. And that’s not all. A circle is
drawn with it’s centre and diameter the same as the base
of the large triangle. This represents the circumference
of the earth. A square is then drawn to touch the
outside of the earth circle. A second circle is then
drawn around the first one, with its circumference equal
to the perimeter of the square. (The squaring of the
circle.) This new circle will actually pass exactly
through the apex of the pyramid. And now the “wow”: A
circle drawn with its centre at the apex of the pyramid
and its radius just long enough to touch the earth
circle, will have the circumference of the moon! Neat,
huh! And the small triangle formed by the moon and the
earth square will be a perfect 345 triangle (which
doesn’t seem to mean much.)
Was the golden ratio intentionally
built into the Great Pyramid of Cheops?
Why would anyone intentionally build the golden ratio
into a pyramid, or other structure? What was the
significance of to the Egyptians? And did the ancient
Egyptians intentionally design the Great Pyramid to
square the circle?
The answer to these questions is uncertain since
designing the Great Pyramid according to the simple
rules explained by the graphic below would give the
pyramid automatically (by coincidence? ) all its "magic"
qualities.
The height of the Great Pyramid times 2π
exactly equals the perimeter of the pyramid. This
proportions result from elegant design of the pyramid
with the height equal two diameters of a circle and the
base equal to the circumference of the circle.
Click
here
or on the image below to see larger picture.
For the angle of the Great Pyramid, any
theory of the base, combined with any theory of the
height, yields a theoretic angle; but the angles
actually proposed are the following** :
Angle of casing measured
By theory of 34 slope to 21 base
Height : circumference :: radius to circle
9 height on 10 base diagonally
7 height to 22 circumference
area of face = area of height squared
(or sine) = cotangent, and many other
relations)
2 height vertical to 3 height diagonal
5 height on 4 base 
51º 52' ± 2' (51.867)
51º 51' 20"
51º 51' 14.3"
51º 50' 39.1"
51º 50' 34.0"
51º 49' 38.3"
51º 40' 16.2"
51º 20' 25" 
** Page 184, The Pyramids and
Temples of Gizeh
by Sir W.M.Flinders Petrie 1883
Comparing the Great Pyramid with the Pyramid of the
Sun in Teotihuacan
The Pyramid of the Sun and the Great Pyramid of Egypt
are almost or very nearly equal to one another in base
perimeter. The Pyramid of the Sun is "almost" half the
height of the Great Pyramid. There is a slight
difference. The Great Pyramid is 1.03  times larger
than the base of the Pyramid of the Sun. Conversely, the
base of the Pyramid of the Sun is 97% of the Great
Pyramid's base.
The ratio of the base perimeter to the height:
Great Pyramid 
Pyramid of the Sun 
6.2800001... : 1
(deviates by 0.05 % from the
6.2831853 value for 2 x pi) 
12.560171... : 1
(deviates by 0.05 % from the
12.566371 value for 4 x pi) 
The Great Pyramid  Metrological
Standard
The Great Pyramid is generally regarded as a tomb and
as grandiose memorial to the pharaoh who commissioned
it. The opposing view is that of the pyramid being
the culminating achievement of those who practiced an
advanced science in prehistory.
The Great Pyramid is a repository of
universal standards, it is a model of the earth
against which any standard could be confirmed and
corrected if necessary.
It is exactly the imperishable standard, which the
French had sought to create by the devising of the metre,
but infinitely more practical and intelligent.
From classical times, the Great pyramid
has always been acknowledged as having mathematical,
metrological and geodetic functions. But ancient Greek
and Roman writers were further removed in time from the
designers of the Great Pyramid than they are from us.
They had merely inherited fragments of a much older
cosmology; the science in which it was founded having
long since disappeared.
The Concave Faces of the Great
Pyramid
Aerial photo by Groves, 1940 (detail).
In his book The Egyptian Pyramids: A
Comprehensive, Illustrated Reference, J.P. Lepre
wrote:
One very unusual feature of the Great Pyramid is a
concavity of the core that makes the monument an
eightsided figure, rather than foursided like
every other Egyptian pyramid. That is to say, that
its four sides are hollowed in or indented along
their central lines, from base to peak. This
concavity divides each of the apparent four sides in
half, creating a very special and unusual
eightsided pyramid; and it is executed to such an
extraordinary degree of precision as to enter the
realm of the uncanny. For, viewed from any ground
position or distance, this concavity is quite
invisible to the naked eye. The hollowingin can be
noticed only from the air, and only at certain times
of the day. This explains why virtually every
available photograph of the Great Pyramid does not
show the hollowingin phenomenon, and why the
concavity was never discovered until the age of
aviation. It was discovered quite by accident in
1940, when a British Air Force pilot, P. Groves, was
flying over the pyramid. He happened to notice the
concavity and captured it in the nowfamous
photograph. [p. 65]
This strange feature was not first observed in 1940.
It was illustrated in La Description de l'Egypte
in the late 1700's (Volume V, pl. 8). Flinders Petrie
noticed a hollowing in the core masonry in the center of
each face and wrote that he "continually observed that
the courses of the core had dips of as much as ½° to 1°"
(The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, 1883, p.
421). Though it is apparently more easily observed from
the air, the concavity is measurable and is visible from
the ground under favorable lighting conditions.
Ikonos satellite image of the Great Pyramid.
Click to
view larger image.
I.E.S. Edwards wrote, "In the Great Pyramid the
packingblocks were laid in such a way that they sloped
slightly inwards towards the centre of each course, with
a result that a noticeable depression runs down the
middle of each face  a peculiarity shared, as far as
is known, by no other pyramid" (The Pyramids of Egypt,
1975, p. 207). Maragioglio and Rinaldi described a
similar concavity on the pyramid of Menkaure, the third
pyramid at Giza. Miroslav Verner wrote that the faces of
the Red Pyramid at Dahshur are also "slightly concave."
Diagram of the concavity (not to scale).
What was the purpose for concave Grea the first
pyramid should hold true for the others."
Three proposed "baselines" of the Great Pyramid (not
to scale).
The purpose for the concavity of the Great Pyramids
remains a mystery and no satisfactory explanation for
this feature has been offered. The indentation is so
slight that any practical function is difficult to
imagine.
© 2000 by Larry Orcutt, Catchpenny
Mysteries, Reprinted with permission
The Great Pyramid's "Air
Shafts"
While shafts in the King's Chamber had been described
as early as 1610, the shafts in the Queen's Chamber were
not discovered until 1872. In that year, Waynman Dixon
and his friend Dr. Grant found a crack in the south wall
of the Queen's Chamber. After pushing a long wire into
the crack, indicating that a void was behind it, Dixon
hired a carpenter named Bill Grundy to cut through the
wall. A rectangular channel, 8.6 inches wide and 8
inches high, was found leading 7 feet into the pyramid
before turning upward at about a 32º angle. With the two
similar shafts of the King's Chamber in mind, Dixon
measured a like position on the north wall, and Grundy
chiseled away and, as expected, found the opening of a
similar channel. The men lit fires inside the shafts in
an attempt to find where they led. The smoke stagnated
in the northern shaft but disappeared into the southern
shaft. No smoke was seen to exit the pyramid on the
outside. Three artifacts were discovered inside the
shafts: a small bronze grapnel hook, a bit of cedarlike
wood, and a "greygranite, or greenstone" ball weighing
8.325 grains thought to be an Egyptian "mina" weight
ball.
Shafts and passages of the Great Pyramid at Giza.
The Shafts of the Queen's Chamber Described
The openings of both shafts are located at the same
level in the chamber, at the joint at the top of the
second course of granite wallstone; the ceilings of the
shafts are level with the joint.
The northern shaft runs horizontally for just over
six feet (76"), then turns upward at a mean angle of 37º
28'. The shaft terminates about 20 feet short of the
outside of the pyramid. The total length of the northern
shaft is about 240 feet and rises at an angle of 38º for
the majority of its length.
The southern shaft also runs horizontally for just
over six feet (80"), then turns upward at a mean angle
of 38º 28'. The total length of the southern shaft is
about 250 feet and, as its northern counterpart, ascends
at an angle of 38º for the majority of its length and
comes to an end about 20 feet short of the outside of
the pyramid.
The Shafts of the King's Chamber Described
The openings of both shafts are located at roughly
the same level in the chamber, at the joint at the top
of the first course of granite wallstone. The northern
opening is slightly lower, its ceiling being level with
the joint, while the floor of the southern opening is
roughly level with the joint.
The northern shaft is rectangular, about 7 inches
wide by 5 inches high, a shape it maintains throughout
its length. The shaft begins on the horizontal for about
6 feet then takes a series of four bends. While
maintaining its general upward angle, it shifts first to
the northnorthwest then back to north, then to
northnortheast, and finally back to true north. It has
been speculated by some that this unexplained
semicircular diversion might have been necessary to
avoid some heretofore undiscovered feature of the
pyramid. The total length of the northern shaft is about
235 feet and rises at an angle of 31º (with a variation
of between 30º 43' and 32º 4') for the majority of its
length.
Though the first eight feet of the northern shaft is
intact, the next thirty or so feet have been excavated
by treasure seekers, presumably following the direction
of the shaft in search of treasure. The breach to the
shaft was made in the west wall of the short passage
leading from the antechamber to the King's Chamber. A
modern iron grate today guards the mouth of this breach.
The southern shaft is different in appearance. Its
mouth is larger, about 18" wide by 24" high. The
dimensions are reduced to about 12" by 18" within a few
feet, and then narrows yet more to about 8" by 12". The
shape is not rectangular, as is the northern shaft, but
has a dome shape where it enters the chamber, with a
narrow floor, the angle of the walls being slightly
obtuse, and a domeshaped ceiling. The shaft is
horizontal and true south for about 6 feet. At the first
bend, its shape changes to an oval, and continues thusly
for about 8 feet. Its orientation also changes slightly
from true south to southsouthwest. At the second bend
its shape changes yet again to a rectangle, with a
height greater than its width. It retains this shape for
the 160 feet to the outside of the pyramid where it
emerges at the 101st course of stone. It also changes
directions once again at the second bend to a more
severe southsouthwest diversion. The total length of
the southern shaft is about 175 feet and ascends at an
angle of 45º (with a variation of between 44º 26' and
45º 30') for the majority of its length.
The Function of the Shafts
When Sandys described the Great Pyramid in 1610, he
wrote of the shafts:
In the walls, on each side of the upper room, there
are two holes, one opposite to another, their ends
not discernable, nor big enough to be crept into 
sooty within, and made, as they say, by a flame of
fire which darted through it.
Greaves also wrote of the King's Chamber shafts in 1638.
Considering the presence of the lampblack inside, he
concluded that the shafts had been intended as
receptacles for an "eternal lamp." In 1692, M. Maillet
wrote that the shafts served as means of communication
for those who were buried alive with the dead king. Not
only did the shafts provide air, he reasoned, but they
also provides a passage for food which was placed in
boxes and pulled through by rope.
By the 20th century, the shafts were presumed to have
been designed to provide ventilation. That view has
slowly been changing, however. I.E.S. Edwards wrote,
"The object of these shafts is not known with certainty;
they may have been designed for the ventilation of the
chamber or for some religious purpose which is still
open to conjecture." (The Pyramids of Egypt,
1961, p. 126.) Ahmed Fakhry wrote, "They are usually
referred to as 'air channels,' but most Egyptologists
believe that they had a religious significance related
to the soul of the king." (The Pyramids, 1969, p.
118.) More recently, Mark Lehner wrote:
A symbolic function should also be attributed to the
socalled "airshafts," which had nothing to do with
conducting air. No other pyramid contains chambers
and passages so high in the body of masonry as
Khufu's and so the builders provided the King's
Chamber with small model passages to allow the
king's spirit to ascend to the stars. (The
Complete Pyramids, 1997, p. 114)
There are many reasons why it is not likely that the
shafts were meant for ventilation. The complex angles of
the shafts necessitated the piercing of many courses of
stone, a daunting logistical challenge during design and
construction. Horizontal shafts would have been much
easier to build: shafts carved through a single course
of stone. One might well wonder why ventilation
would be needed at all! No other known pyramid builder
made such provisions; even workers in rockcut tombs
managed on the air provided solely by the entrance
passage. When the bulk of work on the King's Chamber was
being done, ambient air was plentiful as the ceiling had
not yet been put in place. The chamber was finished as
the superstructure rose.
There are also, however, reasons why it is not likely
that the shafts were meant to serve as "launching ramps"
for the king's ka. When, in 1964, Alexander
Badawy and Virginia Trimble determined that the shafts
are "aimed" at certain "imperishable" circumpolar stars
and at the constellation of Orion, the function of the
shafts as cultic features seemed certain. But the ka
did not require a physical means of egress from a tomb
 false doors served this purpose quite nicely both
before and after Khufu's reign. The passage that ascends
to the entrance of the pyramid is also directed at the
circumpolar stars in the manner of previous pyramids.
The northern shafts for such a use would have been a
needless and bothersome redundancy, although admittedly
the Egyptians were not adverse to redundancies.
That fact that no other pyramid in Egypt is known to
posses similar shafts as those of the Great Pyramid is
problematic. If the shafts were so important for either
ventilation or as passages for the king's ka,
then why were they omitted in other funerary structures?
It is obvious that the builders of Khufu's pyramid went
to a jolly lot of trouble to incorporate the shafts into
the design of the pyramid, but the true reason why still
remains a mystery.
